To-date this question is much discussed and difficult to answer. Scientific study addressing this issue has yet to take place. Current studies involve, above all, questions of climate issues and biodiversity. One focus of this area of research is to ensure rare wildlife – which are often also affected by climate change – do not suffer due to actions made in the interest of climate protection and the advancement of renewable energies. As such, within this topic conflicts can readily develop between climate protection and species protection. In fact, there are many interests involved in this complex debate, including economic, legal, political and those of a personal nature; this only serves to further increase the challenge of making decisions and assigning approvals for wind turbines. The decision-making process and setting priorities must have a legal basis and be on a political level. It is here that robust scientific support and analyses play a deciding role. In this context, the research project “Capercaillie and Wind Energy” investigates the question of whether there are scientifically-verifiable effects of wind turbines on capercaillie, and what they are.